Hadoop MapReduce and Apache Spark are two of essentially the most famend large knowledge architectures. Each provide a dependable community for open supply applied sciences used to course of large knowledge and incorporate machine studying functions on them. On this article, we’ll take a more in-depth have a look at each of them and see how they can be utilized.

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Hadoop MapReduce was undoubtedly the ‘king’ of massive knowledge for a few years till the discharge of Apache Spark machine studying options. In the present day, Apache Spark appears to have claimed the coveted thrown of the very best large knowledge processing framework. With Apache Spark’s higher batch processing pace, myriad main organizations[1], together with eBay, Alibaba, Netflix, Pinterest, and Yelp have already adopted its use of their know-how stacks.

On this article, we evaluate MapReduce vs. Spark and see the areas through which every is powerful.

Hadoop MapReduce

Apache Hadoop MapReduce was invented by software program engineers Mike Cafarella and Doug Slicing[2]. The framework permits customers to course of giant units of knowledge throughout separate computer systems utilizing primary programming fashions.

Listed below are the first elements/applied sciences of Hadoop MapReduce:

HDFS: HDFS is the acronym for Hadoop Distributed File System. It’s accountable for distributing, storing, and retrieving info throughout completely different servers for efficient parallel processing. It could course of each unstructured and structured knowledge, that means it’s an excellent possibility for creating a knowledge lake.

MapReduce: That is the built-in knowledge processing engine of the Hadoop MapReduce framework. It processes unstructured and structured info in a parallel and shared setting through two sequential duties: map and scale back. Map filters and classifies knowledge whereas Cut back splits large knowledge into smaller chunks.

But One other Useful resource Negotiator (YARN): It acts because the Hadoop MapReduce’s cluster scheduler, tasked with implementing distributed workloads. It plans duties and distributes compute assets like reminiscence and CPU to functions. Initially, these duties have been carried out by MapReduce till YARN was integrated as a part of the Hadoop framework.

It could be additionally fascinating for you: Distinction Between Redshift and Snowflake

Apache Spark

Apache Spark has its origins from the College of California Berkeley[3]. Not like the Hadoop MapReduce framework, which depends on HDFS to retailer and entry knowledge, Apache Spark works in reminiscence. It could additionally course of big volumes of knowledge lots quicker than MapReduce by breaking apart workloads on separate nodes.

Listed below are the principle elements of Apache Spark:

Spark Core: A built-in execution engine that manages RDD abstraction and job scheduling

Spark SQL: Customers can instantly run SQL queries by way of Spark’s SQL element.

Spark Streaming & Structured Streaming: Spark Streaming module collects knowledge from separate streaming sources like Kinesis and HDFS, and splits it into micro-batches to type a steady stream. Structured streaming, alternatively, is a novel strategy meant to reduce latency and make programming less complicated.

MLlib: MLlib is an built-in machine studying library. It features a assortment of machine studying algorithms and equipment used for function choice and creating machine studying conduits in-memory.

spark core engine

Within the curiosity of the MapReduce vs. Spark debate, let’s have a look at the efficiency attributes of Hadoop MapReduce and Apache Spark in relation to key enterprise areas.


Hadoop MapReduce splits knowledge processing into 2 phases: Map stage and Cut back stage. It then writes the data again to the disk storage. Apache Spark processes jobs in Random Entry Reminiscence (RAM). As such, Apache Spark outperforms Hadoop MapReduce when it comes to knowledge processing pace. The truth is, Apache Spark could run 100 occasions faster in RAM and ten occasions quicker on-disk storage for an equal batch job in Hadoop MapReduce.

Nevertheless, Apache Spark requires loads of reminiscence. It’s because it usually shops its processes into reminiscence till additional discover. Operating a number of Apache Spark functions concurrently could result in reminiscence issues and hinder the efficiency of all of the functions.

Ideally, Apache Spark is appropriate for iterative duties that have to share the identical knowledge quite a few occasions like in:

• Bank card processing techniques
• Social media websites
• Log monitoring
• IoT sensors
• Machine studying
• Safety analytics
• Advertising and marketing campaigns

apache spark tasks

In distinction, Hadoop MapReduce destroys its processes as soon as a job is completed. Thus, Hadoop MapReduce is appropriate for dealing with a number of longer-running functions concurrently like:

• Predictive modeling
• Cyber menace intelligence
• Buyer analytics
• Danger administration
• Enterprise forecasting


Apache Spark boasts built-in, user-friendly APIs so that you can write the appliance in Scala, Java, Python, Spark SQL, or any programming language. It additionally options an interactive mode that simplifies programming and supplies speedy suggestions on queries.

Hadoop MapReduce is written within the Java programming language. Thus, it’s notoriously arduous to program and name for abstractions. Hadoop MapReduce additionally doesn’t have an interactive mode. As such, customers would want add-on instruments like Apache Pig that want a little bit of time and deal with understanding the syntax.

The underside line within the MapReduce vs. Spark debate is that the latter is simpler to program.


Apache Spark accelerates the processing of huge knowledge units, due to its in-memory. Customers can see the identical knowledge as graphs and might even change and be part of the graphs utilizing RDDs. In addition to batch processing and graph processing, Apache Spark adopts the stream processing strategy to carry out real-time predictive analytics. Subsequently, Apache Spark acts as a one-stop-shop platform for customers as a substitute of dividing duties throughout separate platforms, not like Hadoop MapReduce.

Hadoop MapReduce is good for batch processing. Nevertheless, it doesn’t present the choice of real-time processing or graph processing, that means you’ll have to make use of different platforms like Apache Storm[4], and Apache Giraph[5].

Due to its real-time knowledge processing function, Apache Spark is the go-to possibility for giant knowledge analytics, whereas Hadoop MapReduce is scalable and extra environment friendly in batch processing.

benefits of apache spark


If you take note of the safety comparability between MapReduce vs. Spark, Hadoop MapReduce enjoys a sophisticated degree of safety in comparison with Apache Spark. It’s because HDFS on MapReduce accommodates entry management lists and a standard file permissions system. Hadoop MapReduce additionally gives Service Degree Authorization in the case of person management.

Whereas Apache Spark’s security measures are advancing, they’re nonetheless no match to the high-tech security measures and initiatives built-in with Hadoop MapReduce.


Each Apache Spark and Hadoop MapReduce have retries and speculative implementation for each job. Nevertheless, Hadoop MapReduce enjoys a small benefit right here as a consequence of its reliance on disk storage as a substitute of RAM.

If a course of underneath Hadoop MapReduce crashes throughout execution, it could resume the place it stalled. In distinction, Apache Spark might want to start processing from the beginning. And subsequently, once we speak about MapReduce vs. spark when it comes to fault lenience, Hadoop MapReduce barely edges Apache Spark.


Apache Spark can run as a separate software within the cloud or on high of Hadoop Cluster Scheduler. Primarily, Apache Spark integrates with related knowledge sources and knowledge varieties that Hadoop MapReduce helps. Moreover, Apache Spark helps enterprise intelligence instruments by way of ODBC[6] and JDBC[7]. So each Hadoop MapReduce and Apache Spark share related compatibility with completely different file codecs and knowledge sources.

benefits of hadoop


This techniques can scale to assist giant volumes of knowledge which require sporadic entry as a result of the info will be processed and saved extra affordably in disk drives than RAM. Alternatively, Apache Spark options instruments that allow customers to scale cluster nodes up and down primarily based on workload wants.


Your online business necessities decide your whole prices if you evaluate MapReduce vs. Spark. With a purpose to course of big chunks of knowledge, Hadoop MapReduce is definitely an economical possibility as a result of arduous disk drives are cheaper in comparison with reminiscence house. Apache Spark is a extra reasonably priced possibility should you want real-time knowledge processing due to its in-memory processing.

Ultimate Ideas: Hadoop MapReduce vs. Apache Spark

A comparability of MapReduce vs. Spark reveals the distinctive strengths of every of those two large knowledge frameworks. Whilst you could lean in the direction of Apache Spark as the general winner within the debate between MapReduce vs. Spark, likelihood is you could not use it independently. This implies Apache Spark and Hadoop MapReduce aren’t mutually unique.

For that reason, companies can take advantage of out of their synergy in varied methods. Apache Spark’s spectacular pace, ease of use, and glorious knowledge processing talents can complement Hadoop MapReduce’s safety, scalability, and affordability.

Additionally, Apache Spark and Hadoop MapReduce can be utilized concurrently for varied workloads like knowledge preparation, knowledge engineering, and machine studying. Extra importantly, Hadoop MapReduce and Apache Spark can mix batch processing and real-time processing capabilities.

If you wish to discover out extra about each these instruments or implement large knowledge in your organization, check out our large knowledge consulting providers and be happy to contact us.

[1] Projectpro.io. Prime 5 Apache Spark Use Circumstances. URL: https://www.projectpro.io/article/top-5-apache-spark-use-cases/271. Accessed January 26, 2022.

[2] Geeks forGeeks.org. Hadoop Historical past or Evolution. URL: https://www.geeksforgeeks.org/hadoop-history-or-evolution/, Accessed January 26, 2022.

[3] Apache.org. Historical past. URL: https://spark.apache.org/historical past.html, Accessed January 26, 2022.

[4] Apache.org. URL: https://storm.apache.org/. Accessed January 26, 2022

[5] Apache.org. URL: https://giraph.apache.org/. Accessed January 26, 2022

[6] Magnitude.com. What’s ODBC. URL: https://www.magnitude.com/weblog/what-is-odbc. Accessed January 26, 2022

[7] Wikipedia.org. Database Connectivity. URL: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Java_Database_Connectivity. Accessed January 26, 2022


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